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TRAIL OF TEARS
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS
Wednesday, 12 September 2007
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 145 US Army SP5 John Kedenburg
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 145 US Army SP5 John Kedenburg Green Beret Warrior Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIALIST FIFTH CLASS JOHN J. KEDENBURG (1946-1968) Warriors Citation Command and Control Detachment North, Forward Operating Base 2, United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, Studies and observations Group, distinguished himself on 13 June 1968, deep in enemy controlled territory, as an advisor to a long-range reconnaissance team of South Vietnamese irregular troops. The team was attacked and encircled by a battalion-sized North Vietnamese Army force. After the team managed to break out, Specialist Kedenburg conducted a gallant rear guard fight against the pursuing enemy. His withering fire against the enemy permitted the team to reach a landing zone with the loss of only one man, who was unaccounted for. Specialist Kedenburg and three other members of the team harnessed themselves to the sling of the second hovering helicopter. The South Vietnamese soldier, previously unaccounted for, appeared in the landing zone. Specialist Kedenburg unhesitatingly gave up his place in the sling to the man and directed the pilot to leave the area. He continued then to engage the enemy who were swarming into the landing zone, killing six enemy soldiers before he was overpowered. Specialist Kedenburg's inspiring leadership, consummate courage and willing self-sacrifice permitted his small team to inflict heavy casualties on the enemy while escaping almost certain annihilation. From: historical accounts & records 2007-12-21©bravehorseswarriors™135 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 10:27 PM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 143 US Army MSG Charles Hosking
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 143 US Army MSG Charles Hosking Green Beret Warrior Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket UNITED STATES ARMY MASTER SERGEANT CHARLES E. HOSKING, JR. (1924-1967) Warriors Citation Detachment A-302, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, then sergeant first class, distinguished himself on 21 March 1967, as a company advisor in the Civilian Irregular Defense Group Reaction Battalion during combat operations in Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam. A Viet Cong suspect was apprehended and subsequently identified as a Viet Cong sniper. While Sergeant Hosking was preparing the prisoner for movement back to the base camp, he suddenly grabbed a grenade from Sergeant Hosking’s belt, armed the grenade and started running toward the command group. With utter disregard for his own personal safety, Sergeant Hosking grasped the Viet Cong in a “bear hug,” forced the grenade against the enemy’s chest, and wrestled the prisoner to the ground. Covering the sniper’s body with his own until the grenade detonated, Sergeant Hosking was killed. By absorbing the force of the exploding grenade with his body and that of the enemy, he saved the other members of his command from death or serious injury. From: historical accounts & records 2007-12-19©bravehorseswarriors™135 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 10:24 PM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES PLACE Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 141 Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary Goliath Warriors
Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee, founded in 1995, is the nation's largest natural habitat refuge developed specifically for endangered African and Asian elephants. It operates on 2,700 acres in Hohenwald, Tennessee - 85 miles southwest of Nashville. Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary The Elephant Sanctuary exists for two reasons: To provide a haven for old, sick or needy elephants in a setting of green pastures, old-growth forests, spring-fed ponds and a heated barn for cold winter nights. To provide education about the crisis facing these social, sensitive, passionately intense, playful, complex, exceedingly intelligent and endangered creatures. http://www.elephants.com/ Tennessee Elephant Sanctuary Warriors Citation Two species of elephants were in existence during the Greek and Roman period: the Indian and African. Both species have survived to the present day. The back of the Indian elephant is convex. The cows have very small tusks or none at all. The highest point of its body is the top of its head and the forehead is slightly indented. The African elephant is distinguished by its large triangular ears and concave back. The African is divided into two subspecies: the Bush elephant and the Forest elephant. The major difference in the two subspecies is in the size. The average adult Bush is over eight feet at the shoulder, and the Forest is under that figure. The African elephants were taken from North and East Africa. The Ptolemies of Egypt exploited this group particularly. Elephants were widespread in Syria, but the myth of a Syrian elephant as distinct from the Indian and African must be dismissed. There is no evidence of such a difference. A variety of methods were employed in antiquity to trap elephants, such as pits, falling spears, bamboo ring traps, trunk snares, ham-stringing, fire, poisoned arrows, and the corral. Arrian records a method of hunting Indian elephants from which he quotes Megasthenes: “They choose a place that is level and open to the sun’s heat and dig a ditch in a circle wide enough for a great army to encamp within it. They dig a ditch and heap the dirt up on either side as a wall. They make shelters for themselves dug out of the wall on the outside of the ditch and place small windows in them; through these, the light comes in and they watch the animals entering. Then they leave three or four of their tamest females within the enclosure and leave only one entrance by the ditch, making a bridge over it; and here they heap much earth and grass so that the animals cannot distinguish the bridge, and so suspect any trick. The hunters then hide in the shelters dug under the ditch. And when the elephants approach the ditch and hear the trumpeting of the females and perceive them by their scent, they rush to the walled enclosure. When the hunters see that the wild elephants have entered, some smartly remove the bridge…” A more aggressive method of hunting was used by the Ethiopians to neutralize the African elephant. Diodorus provides an account: “The elephant fighter seizes the elephant’s tail with his hands and plants his feet against its left flank; he has hanging from his shoulders an axe, light enough so that the blow may be struck with one hand and yet very sharp, and grasping this in his right hand, he ham-strings the elephant’s right leg, raining blows upon it and maintaining the position of his own body with his left hand. The ham-strung beast often collapses on the spot causing the death of the Ethiopian with his own; sometimes squeezing the man against a rock or tree it crushes him with its weight until it kills him.” The elephant was used in battle because of its immense size and great strength. When the Romans encountered the elephants of Pyrrhus “some (Romans) were killed by the men in the towers on the elephants’ backs, and others by the beasts themselves, which destroyed many with their trunks and tusks and crushed and trampled under foot many more .” Aelian recorded Ctesias as saying that he has seen “date-palms completely uprooted by elephants.” Also, Mago’s elephants “trampled to death twenty-two sons of nobles serving in the Roman cavalry.” Once one of Scipio’s wounded elephants was “crushing a sutler underfoot when a veteran in Caesar’s army distracted the beast which then lifted him in the air with its trunk; whereupon the soldier kept hacking at the trunk with his sword until pain caused the beast to drop him.” Elephants were sometimes equipped with frightening headpieces and breastplates for defensive armor. Arrian states that elephants’ tusks were armed with sharp iron, while the poet Silius Italicus refers to spears fastened to the tusks. Elephants also wore clanging bells around their necks in battle. Sometimes war-elephants carried only a mahout (the keeper/trainer of the elephant, normally imported from India). At times the elephant carried on or more armed soldiers on its back while some had towers or castles containing warriors. The towers were fastened to the elephant’s back by means of ropes or chains which passed around its body on the front, middle, and backside. The elephant was a serious fighting machine in antiquity. Elephants could (and often did) almost solely determine the course of battle. After Antiochas had won an elephant-victory over the terrified Gauls, he wept and called out, “Shame my men, whose salvation came through these sixteen beasts. If the novelty of their appearance had not struck the enemy with panic, where should we have been?” Had Antiochas not possessed his sixteen elephants, he might well have lost the battle. These animals had tremendous potential, but were also unpredictable in battle – which is why the Romans did not use the beasts until late; and when they did use them, it was always in small numbers. Elephants sometimes had to be killed by their mahouts if they got out of hand in battle. If an elephant was wounded in battle and reversed his course, breaking his own phalanx, the mahout was forced to drive a chisel down between the beast’s ears with a mallet. Other elephant riders carried knives bound to their right hands in order to kill the unruly beast with a blow where the head joins the neck. The elephant was a weapon. There were several different uses of the elephant on the battlefield. They were useful in attacking infantry and cavalry, in acting as a defensive screen against enemy missiles and cavalry, in storming camps, and in siege warfare. In fighting Alexander in India, Porus used elephants to attack the Macedonian infantry. This may be the reason why Alexander used such a small part of his heavy infantry in this battle. In the battle between the Carthaginians and Regulus, the Spartan commander, Xanthippus, sent forth his elephants in advance of the phalanx; Regulus did not know that open order was the way to meet them, and they ploughed through the massed legionaries with a devastating effect. The common phalanx was like a lengthy, mobile wall of shields were literally locked together beside one another. If the wall could be broken severely, then the attackers could often rout the enemy infantry easily. Elephants were used effectively on many occasions to rout enemy cavalry. Antiochas triumphed over the Galatians this way. Lucian writes, “…A group of four or five elephants were sent against the cavalry on either flank, the remaining eight attacked the scythed and two-horse chariots… Neither the Galatians themselves nor their horses had previously seen an elephant, and they were so confused by the unexpected sight, that while the beasts were still a long way off and they would only hear the trumpeting and see their tusks gleaming… they turned and fled in a disorderly route before they were within bowshot. Their infantry was trampled by their own frightened cavalry.” The Macedonian powers used their elephants almost entirely as a screen against cavalry. The classical instance is Ipsus, where the 480 elephants that Seleucus brought into action formed a screen, which prevented Demetrius, after his victorious cavalry charge, from returning to the battlefield, though his horses were trained to elephants. In the battle at Paraitakene, both Antigonus and Eumenes attempted to use elephants as screens against the enemy cavalry. A development of the screen idea was shown by Pyrrhus at Heraclea, where he used his elephants to protect the wings of his phalanx. The Carthaginians under the command of Hanno stormed an entrenched Roman camp successfully. The survivors fled. When the Jugurthan army engaged the Romans, Bomilcar, who had been put in command of the elephants and part of the infantry, thrust between the two Roman detachments, and while the main battle was raging, he attacked Rutilius’ camp. As long as they felt protected by their elephants, the Numidians pressed on, but when they saw the elephants entangled in the branches of some trees and separated from one another, the fled. Livy gives an account of an incident in which Hannibal’s elephants broke into a Roman camp causing much confusion until driven out by fire and how in the Third Punic War, Aemilianus stormed the Carthaginian camp at Nepheris. Camp storming by an elephant army seems to have been a rare phenomenon which was used successfully on some occasions. Elephants were sometimes used in siege warfare. Aristotle writes that “an elephant, by pushing with his big tusks, can batter down a wall and will butt with his forehead at a palm until he brings it down.” The Macedonians began using elephants to break into fortified places. Perdiccas did this in his campaign against Ptolemy and Polyperchon at the siege of Megalopolis. The Carthaginians tried to force the Roman trenches outside Panoramus with elephants. The elephant was generally not very effective at siege warfare. The usual counter-methods were to pick off the drivers and to put down caltrops which lamed the animals. Armies used elephants in three other minor ways: execution of prisoners, fording rivers, and in training horses. Curtis records that thirty prisoners were “trampled to death by the feet of the elephants of the Macedonian commander, Perdiccas.” Also, the Carthaginians, under Hamilcar, had some of their prisoners thrown to the elephants to be trampled to death in the war with the mercenaries. When the Macedonians were fighting the Egyptians, the Macedonian army attempted to cross the Nile, but the men were up to their chins in water and found the current too strong. So Perdiccas placed elephants in the river, upstream, to break the force of the water, while he put cavalry on the downstream side of his men to help those who were being swept away. Also, the Persian army placed elephants in both sides of the Phasis River as far as they could stand behind a barrier of stockades and boats in order to help the passage of the Persians against the current. Every wise general in the Graeco-Roman period kept at least a few elephants with the army in order to train the cavalry for future elephant battles. Untrained horses would always flee elephants in battle. Elephants were often held back behind the lines in reserve for a critical moment in battle. This was done especially if the number of elephants was small. Lucius Scipio kept his sixteen African beasts in reserve rather than have them face Antiochas/ fifty-four Indians. The Roman strategy of deploying only a small number of elephants on the battlefield worked quite well. The normal position of elephants was in front of the main battle-line or in front of part of it. They were not kept too close to the front line in order that they might have some room to retreat if necessary and also to allow the infantry ample time to open up the line to let them through. The non-elephant armies developed all sorts of methods of trying to cope with the onslaught of elephants. The military genius, Scipio Africanus, developed the solution to the problem of how an army should face elephants. He left lanes in his battle-line along which the elephants could be channeled to the rear and gotten out of the way. Scipio foiled Hannibal by using the tactic at the battle of Zama. Armies developed anti-elephant weapons. In attack, the aim was to try to surround individual beasts, threatening them from the flank and rear. For this, special weapons might be devised, such as the scimitars and axes used by Alexander. Caesar used slingers who could aim at the mahout as well as the elephant. During the Sassanid Wars cataphracts (men armored with iron spikes which prevented the elephants from seizing them with their trunks) were used. The Romans were said to have deployed iron-pointed beams mounted on wagons against Pyrrhus. The ingenious Romans also used chariots drawn by armored horses, an arrow-firing catapult mounted on a vehicle drawn by horses or mules, and fire carts. Polyperchon used nail studded frames as moveable barriers at Megalopolis and Ptolemy laid an iron-spiked minefield at Gaza. The ancient sources are very clear in indicating that pigs were used to deter elephants in battle. Pliny writes “elephants are scared by the smallest squeal of a pig; and when wounded and frightened, they always give ground .” Aelian says that “it was by these squealing pigs, they say, that the Romans turned to flight the elephants of Pyrrhus and won a glorious victory .” The most frequently told tale concerning pigs as a counter weapon to elephants may be represented by Aelian and Polyaenus: when Antigonas Gonatas was besieging Megara, the Megarians succeeded in routing the besiegers’ elephants by dousing pigs in oil and igniting them and then turning them loose against the elephants. One might object that this is hardly a fair test of the elephant’s reaction to pigs per se; but both authors specifically state that the beasts were startled by the squeal rather than by the fire. The flames were simply a means of guaranteeing a satisfactory squeal. As a final instance of the effect of pigs on elephants in battle, it is feasible to examine Procopius’ account of events at Edessa. The city was being besieged by Chosroes, and an elephant with many soldiers on its back was driven up to the city wall and towered over it. The resourceful inhabitants thrust a squealing pig over the wall and into the face of the looming elephant. The result was panic and retreat. Altogether the pig seems to have been quite an effective weapon against the elephant, although its use does not appear to have been widespread in the ancient world. An important aspect of the war-elephant was its psychological impact upon the opposing force. A certain part of every battle was fought in the minds of the armies. Elephants would always inspire confidence in an army in which they were a part, while they would have the opposite effect upon the enemy—especially if the enemy soldiers had never faced these juggernauts. The brilliant armor worn by the beasts added to the fear felt by an enemy infantryman. Diodorus states that the elephants of an Indian king were “equipped in an extremely splendid fashion with things which would strike terror in war.” Ammianus adds his view of approaching war-elephants: ”With the army, making a lofty show, slowly marched the lines of the elephants, frightful with their wrinkled bodies and loaded with armed men, a hideous spectacle, dreadful beyond every form of horror, as I have often declared. “Polyaenus records that “Caesar had one large elephant, which was equipped with armor and carried archers and slingers in its tower. When this unknown creature entered the river, the Britons and their horses fled and the Roman army crossed over.” In this case the elephant was the sole reason for the advance. Clearly, the elephant had the ability to provoke fear in the enemy even if in reality the beast was an unpredictable weapon. Hannibal knew of this psychological effect as Pliny relates an account which declares that “Hannibal pitted a Roman prisoner against an elephant, and this man, having secured a promise of his freedom if he killed the animal, met it single-handed in the arena and much to the chagrin of the Carthaginians dispatched it. Hannibal realized that reports of this encounter would bring the animals into contempt, so he sent horsemen to kill the man as he was departing.” Obviously Hannibal was trying to protect the gruesome reputation of his living weapons. W.W. Tarn states that “there is a modern belief that the elephant was the tank of antiquity” and that to compare the elephant with a tank is, in his opinion, “quite misleading.” Tarn, however, is entirely wrong. The elephant and tank bear in common all of the major uses I have outlined: infantry and cavalry attack, defensive screens, camp storming, and siege warfare. Megasthenes writes that “the elephant carries four persons, the driver and three bowmen.” The tanks of World War I and II often had a crew of one driver and several gunners. Although not nearly as heavy, elephants sometimes possessed armor. Elephants with towers that housed sharpshooters were even more like tanks. Besides the tactical and physical parallels, the early tank had the same psychological effect as the elephant. A French tank commander during World War I gives this account: “We crossed the Soissons road in columns of half sections…where we moved east and deployed. The surprised Germans received us at first with machine-gun fire. A bullet came through the left visor and wounded my driver on the shoulder. The section by this time opened fire on the enemy who ran away panic stricken.” One would need only overlook the advanced machinery and technology for this account to sound exactly like an ancient elephant battle. Both W. W. Tarn and the editors of The Oxford Classical Dictionary purport that the common idea that the African elephant was smaller and weaker than the Indian elephant is a “thoughtless literary cliché” and offer “heavy weights recorded for Ptolemaic tusks” as conclusive evidence.” However, Diodorus, Pliny, and others all agree that the African elephant is inferior in size and strength. Furthermore, H. H. Scullard refutes the tusk theory emphasizing that there are actually two subspecies of African elephants: the common Bush elephant and the smaller Forest elephant. The Forest elephant was the African elephant of the ancient world. Many have surmised that the battle of Raphia, where Indian and African elephants met, demonstrated that the African is inferior because of its defeat there. However, the Indians outnumbered the Africans significantly and therefore it is unfair to cite the outcome of the battle as a valid test as to which elephant was the best fighting machine. When Pyrrhus was asked by Tarentum to help fight Rome, he sent a force of 25,000 men and 20 elephants from the Greek peninsula. He was faced with the problem of transporting the beasts to Tarentum. All of the ancient sources are silent on this matter. Clearly, the elephants must have crossed the Adriatic Sea somehow. This problem has baffled scholars for centuries. The shortest distance was forty miles across. When Metellus had to transport his elephants across the Straits of Messina for display in Rome, he constructed a raft made up of large jars which were fastened in such a way that they could not break apart or clash; this framework was then covered with planks; earth and brushwood were placed on top so that the raft looked like a farmyard. On this, the elephants ferried across. This method is the most plausible one for Pyrrhus to have used since the Mediterranean would have been calm during the spring. Also, elephant eyesight is weak in bright sunlight and thus the beasts could have been more easily tricked into entering the disguised barge. Moreover, the Carthaginians were later to transport their elephants from Africa to Sicily by sea. The raft method was used to cross rivers and to travel on the Red Sea by Ptolemy. The only non-military uses of the elephant were in circuses, games and religious processions. Occasionally a private individual would own an elephant for a luxurious mode of transportation. Horrifying spectacles of carnage were observed by those attending the Roman games. Cicero was repulsed by elephant fights in the arena and remarked “What pleasure can a cultivated man find in seeing a noble beast run through by a hunting spear?” Despite all the carnage, elephants astounded audiences by kneeling before emperors, walking tightropes, and dancing. Representing symbols of light, forty highly trained elephants escorted Julius Caesar up to the Capitol with lighted torches in their trunks for his triumph. This type of procession was used earlier in the East. The elephant, with its many different functions, was an important shaper of history. This animal decided the fate of many battles in the Greek and Roman world. The use of elephants in the military forced the production of counter-weapons and thus stimulated technological developments. The elephant has a place in history, a large one. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-11©bravehorseswarriors™141 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 4:25 AM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 20 September 2007 4:44 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 139 US Army 1Lt Loren Hagen
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 139 US Army 1Lt Loren Hagen Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action Green Beret Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Army First Lieutenant Loren D. Hagen (1946-1971) Warriors Citation 1st Lt. Hagen distinguished himself in action while serving as the team leader of a small reconnaissance team operating deep within enemy-held territory. At approximately 0630 hours on the morning of 7 August 1971 the small team came under a fierce assault by a superior-sized enemy force using heavy small arms, automatic weapons, mortar, and rocket fire. 1st Lt. Hagen immediately began returning small-arms fire upon the attackers and successfully led this team in repelling the first enemy onslaught. He then quickly deployed his warriors into more strategic defense locations before the enemy struck again in an attempt to overrun and annihilate the beleaguered team's warriors. 1st Lt. Hagen repeatedly exposed himself to the enemy fire directed at him as he constantly moved about the team's perimeter, directing fire, rallying the warriors, and re-supplying the team with ammunition, while courageously returning small arms and hand grenade fire in a valorous attempt to repel the advancing enemy force. The courageous actions and expert leadership abilities of 1st Lt. Hagen were a great source of inspiration and instilled confidence in the team members. After observing an enemy rocket make a direct hit on and destroy 1 of the team's bunkers, 1st Lt. Hagen moved toward the wrecked bunker in search for team members despite the fact that the enemy force now controlled the bunker area. With total disregard for his own personal safety, he crawled through the enemy fire while returning small-arms fire upon the enemy force. Undaunted by the enemy rockets and grenades impacting all around him, 1st Lt. Hagen desperately advanced upon the destroyed bunker until he was fatally wounded by enemy small arms and automatic weapons fire. With complete disregard for his personal safety, 1st Lt. Hagen's courageous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty, at the cost of his own life, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon him and the U.S. Army. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-11©bravehorseswarriors™135 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 4:20 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 137 Sergeant Bryan Buker
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 137 Sergeant Bryan Buker Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action Green Beret Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Army Sergeant Bryan L. Buker (1949-1970) Warriors Citation SERGEANT BRIAN L. BUKER, UNITED STATES ARMY, Detachment B-55, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, distinguished himself on 5 April 1970, while serving as a platoon advisor to a Vietnamese Mobile Strike Force Company during a mission in Chau Doc Province, Republic of Vietnam. Sergeant Buker personally led the platoon, cleared a strategically located, well-guarded pass, and established the first foothold at the top of what had been an impenetrable mountain fortress. When the platoon came under intense fire from two heavily fortified enemy bunkers, and realizing that withdrawal would result in heavy casualties, Sergeant Buker unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his own safety, charged through the hail of heavy fire and destroyed the first bunker with hand grenades. While organizing his men for the attack on the second bunker, he fell seriously wounded. Despite his wounds and the deadly enemy fire, he crawled forward and destroyed the second bunker. Sergeant Buker refused medical attention and was reorganizing his men to continue the attack when he was mortally wounded. As a direct result of his heroic actions, many casualties were averted, and the assault of the enemy position was successful. From: historical accounts & records 2007-12-11©bravehorseswarriors™135
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Posted by adjunctprofessor at 4:15 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 135 US Army SFC William Bryant
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 135 US Army SFC William Bryant Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action African American Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Army Sergeant First Class William Maud Bryant (1933-1969) Born: Cochran, GA Warriors Citation SFC Bryant distinguished himself on 24 March 1969, as Commanding Officer of Civilian Irregular Defense Group Company 321, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Mobile Strike Force during combat in Long Khanh Province, Republic of Vietnam. Surrounded by three enemy regiments, the battalion came under heavy fire. Sergeant Bryant displayed extraordinary heroism during 34 hours of incessant attack as he moved throughout the company’s position, heedless of the intense fire, directing fire during critical phases of the battle, distributing ammunition, assisting the wounded, and providing leadership and an inspirational example of courage to his warriors. When a re-supply drop was made, Sergeant Bryant ran through heavy fire to retrieve the scattered ammunition boxes and distribute them. During a lull in the fighting, he led a patrol outside the perimeter to obtain information about the enemy. When the patrol came under automatic weapons fire and was pinned down, Sergeant Bryant single-handedly repulsed one enemy attack and by his heroic actions inspired his warriors to fight off other assaults. He led his warriors back to the company position where he again took command of the defense. When he led a daring attempt to break through the enemy encirclement, the patrol advanced some two hundred meters until they were pinned down by automatic weapons fire. Sergeant Bryant was severely wounded, but he rallied his warriors, called for gunship support, and directed heavy suppressive fire upon the enemy position. Following the last airship attack, Sergeant Bryant fearlessly charged and overran an enemy automatic weapons position, single-handedly killing its three defenders. Inspired by his heroic example, his warriors continued their attack on the entrenched enemy. While regrouping his small force, Sergeant Bryant was mortally wounded by an enemy rocket. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-11©bravehorseswarriors™135 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 4:11 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES EVENT The Ghost Dance Movement
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 129 The Ghost Dance Movement Spirit Warriors (1870-78)
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket The Ghost Dance refers to a type of messianic movement that arose among the Native Americans of the western Great Basin and later (1898-95) spread to the Plains. It expressed a desperate longing for the restoration of the past; a return to a life free of hunger, epidemic disease, and the bitter warring and divisiveness that accompanied the Native Americans' subjugation by whites. The religion was started by a medicine man named Wavoka (English name of Jack Wilson). He had a vision of a great flood that would come upon the land wiping it clean of all the settlers. Right before the flood the thunderbirds were to come down and bring up those Native Americans that stayed true to the scared path. When the waters receded the buffalo and those Native Americans would then be brought back to the land and things would be as they were. Ghost Dance shirts were made in order to protect the Native Americans from any bullets the white man would use against them. This would be accomplished by performing the Ghost Dance Ceremony which was done by calling on those ancestors in spirit form, to come into the bodies of the dancers making them immortal. Many would paint their shirts with symbols of their personal medicine so that it may come through for them when it was needed. The circles were the power hail for protection along with paintings of the thunderbeings and other types of symbolism. During the battle of Wounded Knee (1890), in which 200 Sioux warriors, women, and children were massacred, many wore "Ghost Shirts" emblazoned with eagle, buffalo, and morning-star decorations. They believed these symbols of powerful spirits would protect them from the soldiers' bullets. The tragedy at Wounded Knee effectively put an end to the Ghost Dance, although some Plains tribes performed it until 1985 or incorporated aspects of the ritual into their culture, as in the ghost-dance hand games of the Pawnee. There have been more recent Ghost Dances. Crow Dog's Ghost Dance of 1973 and the most recent movement that took place in central Montana in August 1998. The Ghost Dance of 1973 was a way to connect with the ancestors of the Native Americans. It was supposed to continue the "hoop" that connected them all, keeping the Native American tradition and culture alive. The dance that Leonard Crow Dog brought back in 1973 lasted 4 days with continuous dancing starting at five in the morning. The dance included the peace pipe, tobacco, and other traditional necessities for ceremonies. Thirty to forty dancers were involved in Crow Dog's Ghost Dance. Some of the dancers had visions that uplifted the people spiritually. Up to this point I have been unsuccessful in gathering a lot of information about the Ghost Dance in Montana in August of this year. If anyone would have information to share, please e-mail me so that I may share it here with others. The following is the story of the "Ghost Dance Movement." Come on a journey with me and we shall travel trough time to learn more about the "Ghost Dance Movement." By the 1880s the U.S. government had managed to confine almost all of the Native Americans on reservations, usually on land so poor that the white man could conceive of no use for it themselves. The rations and supplies that had been guaranteed them by the treaties were of poor quality, if they arrived at all. Graft and corruption were rampant in the Native American Bureau. In an attempt to stem this problem, a move was made to recruit Quakers to take the positions as Native American agents, however not nearly enough Quakers responded to the call for volunteers. This call, however, opened the door to other denominations setting up shop on the reservations. An attempt was made to convert the Indians to Christianity with mixed results. However, by 1890 conditions were so bad on the reservations, nationwide, with starvation conditions existing in many places, that the situation was ripe for a major movement to rise among the Native Americans. This movement found its origin in a Paiute named Wovoka, who announced that he was the messiah come to earth to prepare the Native Americans for their salvation. Representatives from tribes all over the nation came to Nevada to meet with Wovoka and learn to dance the Ghost Dance and to sing Ghost Dance songs. Wovoka Jack Wilson (c.1856-1932) Known as the messiah to his followers, Wovoka was the Paiute mystic whose religious pronouncements spread the Ghost Dance among many tribes across the American West. Wovoka was born in Western Nevada, in what is now Esmeralda County, in about 1856. Little is known about his early life, but at about age fourteen his father died, leaving Wovoka to be raised by the family of David Wilson, a nearby white rancher. Wovoka soon took the name Jack Wilson, by which he was broadly known among both neighboring whites and Native Americans, and worked on Wilson's ranch well into adulthood. He learned to speak English and apparently had a fair amount of contact with Christianity. At around age thirty, Wovoka began to weave together various cultural strains into the Ghost Dance religion. He had a rich tradition of religious mysticism upon which to draw. Around 1870, a northern Paiute named Tävibo had prophesied that while all whites would be swallowed up by the earth, all dead Native Americans would emerge to enjoy a world free of their conquerors. He urged his followers to dance in circles, already a tradition in the Great Basin area, while singing religious songs. Tävibo's movement spread to parts of Nevada, California and Oregon. Whether or not Tävibo was Wovoka's father, as many at the time assumed, in the late 1880's Wovoka began to make similar prophecies. His pronouncements heralded the dawning of a new age, in which whites would vanish, leaving Native Americans to live in a land of material abundance, spiritual renewal and immortal life. Like many millenarian visions, Wovoka's prophecies stressed the link between righteous behavior and imminent salvation. Salvation was not to be passively awaited but welcomed by a regime of ritual dancing and upright moral conduct. Despite the later association of the Ghost Dance with the Wounded Knee Massacre and unrest on the Lakota reservations, Wovoka charged his followers to "not hurt anybody or do harm to anyone. You must not fight. Do right always... Do not refuse to work for the whites and do not make any trouble with them." Wovoka's Letter: THE MESSIAH LETTER When you get home you must make a dance to continue five days. Dance four successive nights, and the last night keep up the dance until the morning of the fifth day, when all must bathe in the river and then disperse to their homes. You must all do in the same way. I, Jack Wilson, love you all, and my heart is full of gladness for the gifts you have brought me. When you get home I shall give you a good cloud [rain?] which will make you feel good. I give you a good spirit and give you all good paint. I want you to come again in three months, some from each tribe there [the Native American Territory]. There will be a good deal of snow this year and some rain. In the fall there will be such a rain as I have never given you before. Grandfather [a universal title of reverence among Indians and here meaning the messiah] says, when your friends die you must not cry. You must not hurt anybody or do harm to anyone. You must not fight. Do right always. It will give you satisfaction in life. This young man has a good father and mother. [Possibly this refers to Casper Edson, the young Arapaho who wrote down this message of Wovoka for the delegation]. Do not tell the white people about this. Jesus is now upon the earth. He appears like a cloud. The dead are still alive again. I do not know when they will be here; maybe this fall or in the spring. When the time comes there will be no more sickness and everyone will be young again. Do not refuse to work for the whites and do not make any trouble with them until you leave them. When the earth shakes [at the coming of the new world] do not be afraid. It will not hurt you. I want you to dance every six weeks. Make a feast at the dance and have food that everybody may eat. Then bathe in the water. That is all. You will receive good words again from me some time. Do not tell lies. [TEXT: James Mooney, The Ghost-dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890, 14th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Part 2 (1896).] In early October of 1890, Kicking Bear, a Minneconjou, visited Sitting Bull at Standing Rock. He told him of the visit he and his brother-in-law, Short Bull, had made to Nevada to visit Wovoka. They told him of the great number of other Native Americans who were there as well. They referred to Wovoka as the Christ and told of the Ghost Dance that they had learned and the way that the Christ had flown over them on their horseback ride back to the railroad tracks, teaching them Ghost Dance songs. And they told him of the phophecy that, next spring, when the grass was high, the earth would be covered with new soil, burying all the white men. The new soil would be covered with sweet grass, running water and trees; the great herds of buffalo and wild horses would return. All Native Americans who danced the Ghost Dance would be taken up into the air and suspended there while the new earth was being laid down. Then they would be replaced there, with the ghosts of their ancestors, on the new earth. Only Indians would live there then. This new religion was being taught at all of the Sioux reservations now. Big Foot's band, which consisted mostly of women who had lost their husbands and/or other male relatives in battles with Custer, Miles and Crook, would dance until they collapsed, hoping to guarantee the return of their dead warriors. Sitting Bull greatly doubted that the dead would be brought back to life. He had no personal objections to people dancing the Ghost Dance; however he had heard that the agents were getting nervous about all of the dancing and were calling in the soldiers on some reservations. He did not want the soldiers to return to kill more of his people. Kicking Bear assured him that, if the dancers wore their Ghost Dance shirts, painted with magic symbols, the soldiers bullets would not strike them. Sitting Bull consented to Kicking Bear remaining at Standing Rock and teaching the Ghost Dance. This began a chain of events that lead to his death on December 15. As the number of people involved in the Ghost Dance movement increased, the panic and hysteria of the Indian agents increased with it. Agent McLaughlin had Kicking Bear removed from Standing Rock, but this did not stop the movement there. McLaughlin telegraphed Washington, asking for troops and blaming Sitting Bull as the power behind this "pernicious system of religion." The whites stumbled over each other in their attempts to quell this movement. Panicky messages about Native Americans dancing in the snow, wild and crazy, were sent to Washington. One voice of sanity, the former agent, Valentine McGillycuddy, recommended allowing the dances to continue. "The coming of the troops has frightened the Native Americans. If the Seventh-Day Adventists prepare the ascension robes for the Second Coming of the Savior, the United States Army is not put in motion to prevent them. Why should not the Indians have the same privilege? If the troops remain, trouble is sure to come". Nonetheless, on December 12, the order was received to arrest Sitting Bull. On December 15, 43 Native American police surrounded Sitting Bull's cabin before dawn. Three miles away they were backed up by a squadron of cavalry. When Lieutenant Bull Head entered the cabin, Sitting Bull was asleep. Upon awakening, he agreed to come with the police and asked that his horse be saddled while he dressed. When they left the cabin, a large group of Ghost Dancers, much larger than the police force, had assembled and challenged the police. One dancer, Catch-the-Bear, pulled out a rifle and shot Lieutenant Bull Head in the side. In an attempt to shoot back at his assailant, Bull Head instead accidentally shot Sitting Bull. Then another policeman, Red Tomahawk, shot Sitting Bull in the head. Many Native American policemen died that day before the cavalry arrived to quell the fighting. This event then precipitated the events that were to follow at Wounded Knee. While the Ghost Dance is sometimes seen today as an expression of Native American militancy and the desire to preserve traditional ways, Wovoka's pronouncements ironically bore the heavy mark of popular Christianity. His invocation of a "Supreme Being," immortality, pacifism and explicit mentions of Jesus (often referred to with such phrases as "the messiah who came once to live on earth with the white man but was killed by them") all speak of an infusion of Christian beliefs into Paiute mysticism. The Ghost Dance spread throughout much of the West, especially among the more recently defeated Native Americans of the Great Plains. Local bands would adopt the core of the message to their own circumstances, writing their own songs and dancing their own dances. In 1889 the Lakota sent a delegation to visit Wovoka. This group brought the Ghost Dance back to their reservations, where believers made sacred shirts -- said to be bulletproof -- especially for the Dance. The slaughter of Big Foot's band at Wounded Knee Creek in 1890 was cruel proof that whites were not about to simply vanish, that the millennium was not at hand. Wovoka quickly lost his notoriety and lived as Jack Wilson until sometime in 1932. He left the Ghost Dance as evidence of a growing pan-Indian identity which drew upon elements of both white and Native American traditions. Having just a small amount of Cherokee blood, I find myself drawn to a need to understand these events. Fear of the unknown affects us all whether we admit it or not. What a shame that the white man's "fear of the Ghost Dance", combined with the growing unrest of a starving Native American Nation created the events during this time. Clashes of culture, direspect for those who are different, and a lack of Christian compassion prevailed. My heart cries for the mothers who watched their children die, the braves who fought so bravely to protect their families, all with a profound belief that protection would come from their participation and belief in the "Ghost Dance" and the wearing of "Ghost Shirts". I still feel their longing today....Ghost Dancer From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-05©bravehorseswarriors™129 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 3:50 AM EDT
Updated: Thursday, 20 September 2007 4:51 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 127 US Navy Lt Thomas Kelly
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 127 US Navy Lt Thomas Kelly Medal of Honor Winner Wounded in Action
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Navy Lieutenant Thomas G. Kelly Warriors Citation For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on the afternoon of 15 June 1969 while serving as Commander River Assault Division 152 during combat operations against enemy aggressor forces in the Republic of Vietnam. Lieutenant Kelley was in charge of a column of eight river assault craft which were extracting one company of United States Army infantry warriors on the east bank of the Ong Muong Canal in Kien Hoa Province, when one of the armored troop carriers reported a mechanical failure of a loading ramp. At approximately the same time, Viet Cong forces opened fire from the opposite bank of the canal. After issuing orders for the crippled troop carrier to raise its ramp manually, and for the remaining boats to form a protective cordon around the disabled craft, Lieutenant Kelley, realizing the extreme danger to his column and its inability to clear the ambush site until the crippled unit was repaired, boldly maneuvered the monitor in which he was embarked to the exposed side of the protective cordon in direct line with the enemy's fire, and ordered the monitor to commence firing. Suddenly, an enemy rocket scored a direct hit on the coxswain's flat, the shell penetrating the thick armor plate, and the explosion spraying shrapnel in all directions. Sustaining serious head wounds from the blast, which hurled him to the deck of the monitor, Lieutenant Kelley disregarded his severe injuries and attempted to continue directing the other boats. Although unable to move from the deck or to speak clearly into the radio, he succeeded in relaying his commands through one of his men until the enemy attack was silenced and the boats were able to move to an area of safety. Lieutenant Kelley's brilliant leadership, bold initiative, and resolute determination served to inspire his warriors and provided the impetus needed to carry out the mission after he was medically evacuated by helicopter. His extraordinary courage under fire and his selfless devotion to duty sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-03©bravehorseswarriors™127 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 3:46 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 125 US Army SFC Randall Shughart
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 125 US Army SFC Randall Shughart Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket UNITED STATES ARMY SERGEANT FIRST CLASS RANDALL D. SHUGHART Warriors Citation SERGEANT FIRST CLASS RANDALL D. SHUGHART, UNITED STATES ARMY, U. S. Army Special Operations Command, distinguished himself on 3 October 1993, while serving as a Sniper Team warrior attached to TASK FORCE RANGER in Mogadishu, Somalia. Sergeant Shughart provided precision sniper fires from the lead helicopter during an assault on a building and at two helicopter crash sites, while subjected to intense automatic weapons and rocket propelled grenade fires. While providing critical suppressive fires at the second crash site, Sergeant Shughart and his team leader learned that ground forces were not immediately available to secure the site. Sergeant Shughart and his team leader unhesitatingly volunteered to be inserted to protect the four critically wounded personnel, despite being well aware of the growing number of enemy personnel closing in on the site. After their third request to be inserted, he and his team leader received permission to perform this volunteer mission. When debris and enemy ground fires at the site caused them to abort the first attempt, Sergeant Shughart and his team leader were inserted one hundred meters south of the crash site. Equipped with only his sniper rifle and a pistol and while under intense small arms fire from the enemy, they fought their way through a dense maze of shanties and shacks to reach the critically injured crew members. Sergeant Shughart pulled the pilot and the other crew members from the aircraft, establishing a perimeter which placed him and his fellow sniper in the most vulnerable position. Sergeant Shughart used his long-range rifle and side arm to kill an undetermined number of attackers while moving around the perimeter, protecting the downed crew. Sergeant Shughart continued his protective fire until he depleted his ammunition and was fatally wounded. His actions saved the pilot’s life. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-01©bravehorseswarriors™125 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 3:42 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 123 Daniel Boone
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 123 Daniel Boone Frontier Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket Daniel Boone Warriors Citation More than any other man, Daniel Boone was responsible for the exploration and settlement of Kentucky. His grandfather came from England to America in 1717. His father was a weaver and blacksmith, and he raised livestock in the country near Reading, Pennsylvania. Daniel was born there on November 2, 1734. If Daniel Boone was destined to become a warrior of the wild, an explorer of unmapped spaces, his boyhood was the perfect preparation. He came to know the friendly Indians in the forests, and early he was marking the habits of wild things and bringing them down with a crude whittled spear. When he was twelve his father gave him a rifle, and his career as a huntsman began. When he was fifteen, the family moved to the Yadkin Valley in North Carolina, a trek that took over a year. At nineteen or twenty he left his family home with a military expedition in the French and Indian Wars. There he met John Finley, a hunter who had seen some of the western wilds, who told him stories that set him dreaming. But Boone was not quite ready to pursue the explorer's life. Back home on his father's farm he began courting a neighbor's daughter, Rebecca Bryan, and soon they were married. In 1767 Boone traveled into the edge of Kentucky and camped for the winter at Salt Spring near Prestonsburg. But the least explored parts were still farther west, beyond the Cumberlands, and John Finley persuaded him to go on a great adventure. On May 1, 1769, Boone, Finley, and four other men, started out. They passed Cumberland Gap and on the 7th of June, they set up camp at Station Camp creek. It was nearly two years before Boone returned home, and during that time he explored Kentucky as far west as the Falls of the Ohio, where Louisville is now. There was another visit to Kentucky in 1773, and in 1774 he built a cabin at Harrodsburg. On this trip, Boone followed the Kentucky River to its mouth. Colonel Richard Henderson of the Transylvania Company hired Boone as his agent, and in March, 1775, Boone came again to the "Great Meadow" with a party of thirty settlers. They began to clear the Wilderness Road and by April they were establishing their settlement at Boonesborough. Boone left the Bluegrass in 1788 and moved into what is now West Virginia. Ten years later he again heard the call of unknown country luring him, this time to the Missouri region. As his dug-out canoe passed Cincinnati, somebody asked why he was leaving Kentucky. "Too crowded" was his answer. He lived in Missouri the rest of his life, although he twice revisited Kentucky before he died at the age of 85. He was buried beside his wife in Missouri. A quarter of a century later they were brought back to the Bluegrass and laid to rest in Frankfort's cemetery. There they rest, on a bluff above the river and town, on a "high, far-seeing place" like the ones he always climbed to see the land beyond...a monument to the new country in the wilderness which they had helped to explore and settle. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-29©bravehorseswarriors™123 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:58 AM EDT
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