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TRAIL OF TEARS
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS
Wednesday, 12 September 2007
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 127 US Navy Lt Thomas Kelly
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 127 US Navy Lt Thomas Kelly Medal of Honor Winner Wounded in Action
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Navy Lieutenant Thomas G. Kelly Warriors Citation For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on the afternoon of 15 June 1969 while serving as Commander River Assault Division 152 during combat operations against enemy aggressor forces in the Republic of Vietnam. Lieutenant Kelley was in charge of a column of eight river assault craft which were extracting one company of United States Army infantry warriors on the east bank of the Ong Muong Canal in Kien Hoa Province, when one of the armored troop carriers reported a mechanical failure of a loading ramp. At approximately the same time, Viet Cong forces opened fire from the opposite bank of the canal. After issuing orders for the crippled troop carrier to raise its ramp manually, and for the remaining boats to form a protective cordon around the disabled craft, Lieutenant Kelley, realizing the extreme danger to his column and its inability to clear the ambush site until the crippled unit was repaired, boldly maneuvered the monitor in which he was embarked to the exposed side of the protective cordon in direct line with the enemy's fire, and ordered the monitor to commence firing. Suddenly, an enemy rocket scored a direct hit on the coxswain's flat, the shell penetrating the thick armor plate, and the explosion spraying shrapnel in all directions. Sustaining serious head wounds from the blast, which hurled him to the deck of the monitor, Lieutenant Kelley disregarded his severe injuries and attempted to continue directing the other boats. Although unable to move from the deck or to speak clearly into the radio, he succeeded in relaying his commands through one of his men until the enemy attack was silenced and the boats were able to move to an area of safety. Lieutenant Kelley's brilliant leadership, bold initiative, and resolute determination served to inspire his warriors and provided the impetus needed to carry out the mission after he was medically evacuated by helicopter. His extraordinary courage under fire and his selfless devotion to duty sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-03©bravehorseswarriors™127 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 3:46 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 125 US Army SFC Randall Shughart
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 125 US Army SFC Randall Shughart Medal of Honor Winner Killed in Action
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket UNITED STATES ARMY SERGEANT FIRST CLASS RANDALL D. SHUGHART Warriors Citation SERGEANT FIRST CLASS RANDALL D. SHUGHART, UNITED STATES ARMY, U. S. Army Special Operations Command, distinguished himself on 3 October 1993, while serving as a Sniper Team warrior attached to TASK FORCE RANGER in Mogadishu, Somalia. Sergeant Shughart provided precision sniper fires from the lead helicopter during an assault on a building and at two helicopter crash sites, while subjected to intense automatic weapons and rocket propelled grenade fires. While providing critical suppressive fires at the second crash site, Sergeant Shughart and his team leader learned that ground forces were not immediately available to secure the site. Sergeant Shughart and his team leader unhesitatingly volunteered to be inserted to protect the four critically wounded personnel, despite being well aware of the growing number of enemy personnel closing in on the site. After their third request to be inserted, he and his team leader received permission to perform this volunteer mission. When debris and enemy ground fires at the site caused them to abort the first attempt, Sergeant Shughart and his team leader were inserted one hundred meters south of the crash site. Equipped with only his sniper rifle and a pistol and while under intense small arms fire from the enemy, they fought their way through a dense maze of shanties and shacks to reach the critically injured crew members. Sergeant Shughart pulled the pilot and the other crew members from the aircraft, establishing a perimeter which placed him and his fellow sniper in the most vulnerable position. Sergeant Shughart used his long-range rifle and side arm to kill an undetermined number of attackers while moving around the perimeter, protecting the downed crew. Sergeant Shughart continued his protective fire until he depleted his ammunition and was fatally wounded. His actions saved the pilot’s life. From: historical accounts & records
2007-12-01©bravehorseswarriors™125 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 3:42 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 123 Daniel Boone
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 123 Daniel Boone Frontier Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket Daniel Boone Warriors Citation More than any other man, Daniel Boone was responsible for the exploration and settlement of Kentucky. His grandfather came from England to America in 1717. His father was a weaver and blacksmith, and he raised livestock in the country near Reading, Pennsylvania. Daniel was born there on November 2, 1734. If Daniel Boone was destined to become a warrior of the wild, an explorer of unmapped spaces, his boyhood was the perfect preparation. He came to know the friendly Indians in the forests, and early he was marking the habits of wild things and bringing them down with a crude whittled spear. When he was twelve his father gave him a rifle, and his career as a huntsman began. When he was fifteen, the family moved to the Yadkin Valley in North Carolina, a trek that took over a year. At nineteen or twenty he left his family home with a military expedition in the French and Indian Wars. There he met John Finley, a hunter who had seen some of the western wilds, who told him stories that set him dreaming. But Boone was not quite ready to pursue the explorer's life. Back home on his father's farm he began courting a neighbor's daughter, Rebecca Bryan, and soon they were married. In 1767 Boone traveled into the edge of Kentucky and camped for the winter at Salt Spring near Prestonsburg. But the least explored parts were still farther west, beyond the Cumberlands, and John Finley persuaded him to go on a great adventure. On May 1, 1769, Boone, Finley, and four other men, started out. They passed Cumberland Gap and on the 7th of June, they set up camp at Station Camp creek. It was nearly two years before Boone returned home, and during that time he explored Kentucky as far west as the Falls of the Ohio, where Louisville is now. There was another visit to Kentucky in 1773, and in 1774 he built a cabin at Harrodsburg. On this trip, Boone followed the Kentucky River to its mouth. Colonel Richard Henderson of the Transylvania Company hired Boone as his agent, and in March, 1775, Boone came again to the "Great Meadow" with a party of thirty settlers. They began to clear the Wilderness Road and by April they were establishing their settlement at Boonesborough. Boone left the Bluegrass in 1788 and moved into what is now West Virginia. Ten years later he again heard the call of unknown country luring him, this time to the Missouri region. As his dug-out canoe passed Cincinnati, somebody asked why he was leaving Kentucky. "Too crowded" was his answer. He lived in Missouri the rest of his life, although he twice revisited Kentucky before he died at the age of 85. He was buried beside his wife in Missouri. A quarter of a century later they were brought back to the Bluegrass and laid to rest in Frankfort's cemetery. There they rest, on a bluff above the river and town, on a "high, far-seeing place" like the ones he always climbed to see the land beyond...a monument to the new country in the wilderness which they had helped to explore and settle. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-29©bravehorseswarriors™123 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:58 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 121 The 442 Regimental Combat Team
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 121 The 442 Regimental Combat Team The Most Decorated Unit in US Military History Warrior Motto: Go for Broke
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Army 442nd Regimental Combat Team The 442nd Regimental Combat Team of the United States Army, was a unit composed of mostly Japanese Americans who fought in Europe during the Second World War. The families of many of its warrirs were subject to internment. The 442nd was a self-sufficient fighting force, and fought with distinction in North Africa, Italy, southern France, and Germany, becoming the most highly decorated unit of its size and length of service in the history of the U.S. Army, including 21 Medal of Honor recipients. Warriors Citation The 100th landed at Oran in Algeria on September 2, 1943, and was originally scheduled to guard supply trains in North Africa. However, Colonel Farrant L. Turner insisted that the 100th be given a combat mission, and it was attached to the “Red Bull” U.S. 34th Division. The 100th sailed from North Africa with 1,300 men on September 22, 1943 and landed at Salerno on September 26, 1943. After obtaining its initial objective of Monte Milleto, the 100th joined the assault on Monte Cassino. The 100th fought valiantly, suffering many casualties; by February 1944, it could muster only 521 men. The depleted battalion joined the defense of the beachhead at Anzio until May 1944, and then added momentum to the push for Rome, but was halted only 10 miles from the city. Some believe that the 100th was deliberately halted to allow non-Nisei soldiers to liberate Rome. The 442nd (other than the 1st battalion, much of which had already been sent as replacements for the 100th, and the remainder of which remained in the U.S. to train further replacements) landed at Anzio and joined the 100th Battalion in Civitavecchia north of Rome on June 10, 1944. The 100th Battalion was now officially part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, but was allowed to keep its unit designation in recognition of its distinguished fighting record. The combined unit continued in the push up Italy, before joining the invasion of southern France, where the 442nd participated in the fight to liberate Bruyeres in south France, and famously rescued the “Lost Battalion” at Biffontaine. Pursuant to army tradition of never leaving soldiers behind, over a five-day period, from 26 October to 30 October 1944, the 442nd suffered over 800 casualties—nearly half of its roster—while rescuing 211 members of the 1st Battalion, 141st Infantry (36th Infantry Division, originally Texas National Guard), which had been surrounded by German forces in the Vosges mountains since 24 October. The 522nd Field Artillery Battalion remained in France, and joined the push into Germany in late 1944 and 1945. Scouts from the 522nd were among the first Allied warriors to release prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp. The remainder of the 442nd returned to Italy to continue the fight against the Gothic Line established by German Field Marshal Kesselring in the Apennines. The 442nd is commonly reported to have suffered a casualty rate of 314 percent (i.e., on average, each man was injured more than three times), informally derived from 9,486 Purple Hearts divided by some 3,000 original in-theater personnel. U.S. Army battle reports show the official casualty rate, combining KIA (killed) with MIA (missing) and WIA (wounded and removed from action) totals, is 93%, still uncommonly high. The Purple Heart figure though (representing a broader range of wounds including those which may not have removed a warrior from action) is disputed by some researchers. A good amount of these Purple Hearts have been awarded during the campaign in the Vosges Mountains. Some wounded were warriors who were victims of trench-foot. But many victims of trench-foot were forced by superiors, or willingly chose, to return to the front even though they were classified as WIA. Wounded warriors would often escape from hospitals to return to the front line battles. The 442nd RCT became the most decorated unit in U.S. military history for its size and length of service, earning it the nickname “The Purple Heart Battalion.” The 442nd RCT received 7 Presidential Unit Citations (5 earned in one month), and its warriors received around 18,000 awards, including: • 21 Medals of Honor (the first awarded posthumously to PFC Sadao Munemori, Company A, 100th Battalion, for action near Seravezza, Italy, on April 5, 1945; the others upgraded from other awards in June 2000) • 52 Distinguished Service Crosses (including 19 Distinguished Service Crosses which were upgraded to Medals of Honor in June 2000) • 1 Distinguished Service Medal • 560 Silver Stars (plus 28 Oak Leaf Clusters for a second award) • 22 Legion of Merit Medals • 15 Soldier’s Medals • 4,000 Bronze Stars (plus 1,200 Oak Leaf Clusters for a second award; one Bronze Star was upgraded to a Medal of Honor in June 2000) • 9,486 Purple Hearts From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-27©bravehorseswarriors™121 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:54 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 119 Flying Tigers
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 119 Flying Tigers Winged Warriors
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket American Volunteer Group Flying Tigers Warriors Citation The AVG was largely the creation of Claire Chennault, a retired U.S. Army Air Corps captain who had become military aviation advisor to Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in the Sino-Japanese War. (On occasion Chennault may have piloted a plane himself, though stories that he was a combat ace are probably apocryphal.) Due to poor fighter aircraft supplied by Russia, results were not impressive, and when Russian air units were withdrawn from China in 1940, Chiang asked for American squadrons to replace them as well as permission to recruit US pilots to fly them. Since the US was not at war, this could not happen openly, but it received favorable assistance and approval from President Franklin D. Roosevelt himself. The resultant clandestine operation was organized in large part by Lauchlin Currie, a young economist in the White House, and by Roosevelt intimate Thomas G. Corcoran. (Currie's assistant was John King Fairbank, who later became America's preeminent Asian scholar.) The AVG financing was handled by China Defense Supplies, which was primarily Tommy Corcoran's creation, with funding provided by the U.S. government; purchases were then made by the Chinese under the "Cash and Carry" provision of the Neutrality Act of 1939. The port of Rangoon in Burma and the Burma Road leading from there to China were of crucial importance for the Republic of China, as the eastern regions of China were under Japanese occupation so virtually all of the foreign material destined for the armed forces of the Republic arrived via that port. By November 1941, when the pilots were trained and most of the P-40s had arrived in Asia, the Flying Tigers were divided into three squadrons: 1st Squadron (“Adam & Eves”); 2nd Squadron (“Panda Bears”) and 3rd Squadron (“Hell’s Angels”). They were assigned to opposite ends of the Burma Road to protect this vital line of communications. Two squadrons were based at Kunming in China and a third at Mingaladon near Rangoon. When the United States officially entered the war, the AVG had 82 pilots and 79 planes, though not all were combat-ready. They had their first combat on December 20, 1941, when they shot down three Japanese bombers near Kunming and damaged a fourth sufficiently that it crashed before returning to its airfield in northern Vietnam. The 3rd Squadron — 18 planes strong — defended Rangoon in December 23-25 and claimed approximately 90 planes, most of them heavy bombers. Other squadrons were rotated through Rangoon in January and February 1942. After the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese in March, the AVG was redeployed to bases in northern Burma and finally in China.The AVG was officially credited with 297 enemy aircraft destroyed, including 229 in the air, based on the Chennault papers, combat reports, and CAMCO records. Another researcher interviewed Japanese veterans that were engaged with the AVG and came up with a much lower number of victories (115) based on Japanese accounts. The AVG veterans dispute this account. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-25©bravehorseswarriors™119 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:51 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 117 Tuskegee Airmen
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 117 Tuskegee Airmen Winged Warriors
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket Tuskegee Airmen Warriors Citation The 99th was ready for combat duty during some of the Allies' earliest actions in the North African campaign, and was transported to Casablanca, Morocco, on the USS Mariposa. From there, they traveled by train to Oujda near Fes, and made their way to Tunis to operate against the Luftwaffe. The warriors and ground crew were largely isolated by racial segregation practices, and left with little guidance from battle-experienced pilots. Operating directly under the Twelfth Air Force and the XII Air Support Command, the 99th FS and the Tuskegee Airmen were bounced around between three groups, the 33rd FG, 324th FG, and 79th FG. The 99th's first combat mission was to attack the small but strategic volcanic island of Pantelleria in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and Tunisia, in preparation for the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943. The 99th moved to Sicily while attached to the 33rd Fighter Group,[4] whose commander, Col. William W. Momyer, fully involved the squadron, and the 99th received a Distinguished Unit Citation for its performance in Sicily. The Tuskegee Airmen were initially equipped with P-40 Warhawks, later with P-47 Thunderbolts, and finally with the airplane that they would become most identified with, the P-51 Mustang. On 27 January and 28 January 1944, German Fw 190 fighter-bombers raided Anzio, where the Allies had conducted amphibious landings on January 22. Attached to the 79th Fighter Group, eleven of the 99th Fighter Squadron's warriors shot down enemy fighters, including Capt. Charles B. Hall, who shot down two, bringing his aerial victory total to three. The eight fighter squadrons defending Anzio together shot down a total of 32 German aircraft, and the 99th had the highest score among them with 13. The squadron won its second Distinguished Unit Citation on 12 May-14 May 1944, while attached to the 324th Fighter Group, attacking German positions on Monastery Hill (Monte Cassino), attacking infantry massing on the hill for a counterattack, and bombing a nearby strong point to force the surrender of the German garrison to Moroccan Goumiers. By this point, more warriors were ready for combat, and the all-black 332nd Fighter Group had been sent overseas with three fighter squadrons: the 100th, 301st and 302nd. Under the command of Col. Benjamin O. Davis, the squadrons were moved to mainland Italy, where the 99th FS, assigned to the group on 1 May, joining them on 6 June. The Airmen of the 332nd Fighter Group escorted bombing raids into Austria, Hungary, Poland and Germany. Flying escort for heavy bombers, the 332nd racked up an impressive combat record. Reportedly, the Luftwaffe awarded the Airmen the nickname, "Schwarze Vogelmenschen," or "Black Birdmen." The Allies called the Airmen "Redtails" or "Redtail Angels," because of the distinctive crimson paint on the vertical stabilizers of the unit's aircraft. Although bomber groups would request Redtail escort when possible, few bomber crew members knew at the time that the Redtails were African Americans. While it had long been said that the Redtails were the only fighter group who never lost a bomber to enemy fighters, suggestions to the contrary, combined with Air Force records and eyewitness accounts indicating that at least 25 bombers were lost to enemy fire, resulted in the Air Force conducting a reassessment of the history of this famed unit in the fall of 2006. The claim that the no bomber escorted by the Tuskegee Airmen had ever been lost to enemy fire first appeared on 24 March 1945. The claim came from an article, published in the Chicago Defender, under the headline "332nd Flies Its 200th Mission without Loss." Ironically, this article was published on the very day that, according to the 28 March 2007 Air Force report, some bombers under 332nd Fighter Group escort protection were shot down. The subsequent report, based on after-mission reports filed by the bomber units and Tuskegee fighter groups as well as missing air crew records and witness testimony, was released in March 2007 and documented 25 bombers shot down by enemy fighter aircraft while being escorted by the Tuskegee Airmen. A B-25 bomb group, the 477th Bombardment Group (Medium), was forming in the US but completed its training too late to see action. The 99th Fighter Squadron after its return to the United States became part of the 477th re-designated the 477th Composite Group. By the end of the war, the Tuskegee Airmen were credited with 109 Luftwaffe aircraft shot down, a patrol boat run aground by machine-gun fire, and destruction of numerous fuel dumps, trucks and trains. The squadrons of the 332nd FG flew more than 15,000 sorties on 1,500 missions. The unit received recognition through official channels and was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for a mission flown 24 March 1945, escorting B-17s to bomb the Daimler-Benz tank factory at Berlin, Germany, an action in which its pilots destroyed three Me-262 jets in aerial combat. The 99th Fighter Squadron in addition received two DUCs, the second after its assignment to the 332nd FG. The Tuskegee Airmen were awarded several Silver Stars, 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Bronze Stars and 744 Air Medals. In all, 992 warriors were trained in Tuskegee from 1940 to 1946; about 445 deployed overseas and 150 warriors lost their lives in training or combat. On 29 March 2007, about 350 Tuskegee Airmen and their widows were collectively awarded the Congressional Gold Medal at a ceremony in the US Capitol rotunda. The medal will go on display at the Smithsonian Institution; individual honorees will receive bronze replicas. The airfield where the airmen trained is now the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-23©bravehorseswarriors™117 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:48 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 115 William F Cody
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 115 William F Cody Medal of Honor Winner Scout Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Army Colonel William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (1846-1917) Warriors Citation He received the Medal of Honor in 1872 for "gallantry in action" while serving as a civilian scout for the 3rd Cavalry Regiment. This medal was revoked on February 5, 1917, 24 days after his death, because he was a civilian and therefore was ineligible for the award under new guidelines for the award in 1917. The medal was restored to him by the Army in 1989. In 1916, the general review of all Medals of Honor deemed 900 unwarranted. This recipient was one of them. In June 1989, the U.S. Army Board of Correction of Records restored the medal to this recipient. Citation: Rank: Civilian Scout. Born: Scott County Iowa; Organization: 3rd Cavalry U.S. Army. Action date: 26 April 1872. Place: Platte River, Nebraska. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-21©bravehorseswarriors™115 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:44 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 111 Skywalkers
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 111 Skywalkers Mohawk Warriors
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket Mohawk Ironworkers In the year 1886 the Grand Trunk Railway wanted to build the Victoria Bridge and it would span the mighty St. Lawrence River and connect Montreal to the Kahnawake Reserve. They contracted out the job to the Dominion Bridge Company. In exchange for being allowed to run the railroad through Mohawk Territory, Grand Trunk arranged for Dominion to hire some of the Mohawks as laborers to work on the bridge site. This decision would have a huge impact upon the lifestyle of many Mohawks, an effect that remains to this very day. Their first job was to supply the stone for the large piers that would support the bridge. When their shifts ended, they would hang out on the bridge watching the other workers to see what they were doing. Even young Native children became curious and soon they were climbing all over the span, right alongside the men. The workers noticed that the Mohawk's agility, grace and sense of balance made it seem as though they had a natural disposition for heights. Fearless Wonders When management became aware of this, they hired and trained a dozen tribal members as ironworkers. The original twelve, all teenagers, were so adept at working at high altitudes, they were known as the 'Fearless Wonders'. They would walk on narrow beams several hundred feet above the raging river and yet it appeared as though they were just on a casual walk along a forest path. In their book 'This Land was Theirs' (1999), Oswalt and Neely state, "Some outsiders have suggested that an absence of fear of height was inborn, but it seem more likely that the trait was learned". Perhaps some of these men did not fear heights and those that did likely repressed their fear in order to gain employment. Constructing bridges and skyscrapers was extremely dangerous work and many of the young Mohawks were drawn to it not only for high wages, but also perhaps for an opportunity to prove their courage. They worked very hard at learning their newfound trade and soon began to train other men from their Reserve. The Mohawk ironworkers used their native language while they riveted steel beams, high up on bridges and skyscrapers. They spoke to each other continuously in Mohawk and this reinforced their own language competency. Sometimes they even taught Mohawk to their non-native co-workers. The Mohawks also used 'sign language', signals made with the hands, which was instrumental in allowing them to communicate with each other quickly and clearly, while working on narrow iron beams, hundreds of feet above the earth. Over the next fifty years many people from various First Nations would follow in the footsteps of the Mohawks of Kahnawake. They became renowned for their ability to walk high steel beams with balance and grace, seemingly without any fear, and ironwork became a matter of identity and great pride within the First Nations. The legend of their innate abilities began to apply to native men from all over the Woodland area and thus allowed them to get hired all across the US and Canada. These men helped to shape and build the 'New America'. Skywalkers By the early 1900's the emergence of the modern-day skyscraper occurred. Iron bridges and tall buildings, those were the future. Chicago and New York City were reaching for the stars. From the beginning of that new age of construction, the Mohawks were there, 'sky-walking' on the clouds, high above it all. The men made the long journey from their reserves to the big cities alone, leaving their families and then returning once or twice a month to visit. These Mohawk men, who worked in the Ironworkers Industry of America, soon became legendary and were known in later years as the 'Skywalkers'. By the 1930's the Mohawks began to move in large numbers from the Kahnawake and Akwesasne Reserves in Canada and upstate NY. They were attracted by New York's great building boom, fueled by Depression-era Public Works, and later the post-war economic revival. Entire families set up their own little communities within the midst of the unknown bustling city. It was quite a contrast to their quiet lives back home. One such community was formed in Brooklyn in the vicinity of the Cuyler Church. Reverend Cory welcomed these Mohawk families to attend his church and treated them the same as any of God's children. He spent a great deal of time learning their language, so much so that he was able to translate religious readings into the Mohawk-Oneida dialect. He also promoted the reacquisition of Mohawk traditional culture and made the resources of the church available to the Native community for that purpose. The church also served as a community center where people would often gather to hear news from home, tell stories, trade information, and hold cultural events. By the late 1950's construction in New York City diminished, thus decreasing employment and causing numerous Mohawk families to vacate the North Gowanus enclave. Manhattan Island needs healing The Mohawks from New York State and Canada once controlled all the land in the Hudson Valley, including Manhattan Island and most of Long Island. They were the Keepers of the Eastern Door of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mohawks were instrumental in the construction of many of the bridges and skyscrapers of New York City; such as the Woolworth Building, the Empire State Building, the Waldorf Astoria, the RCA Building (now the GE Bldg.), the Chase Manhattan Bank, the Columbia Center, the George Washington Bridge, the Triborough Bridge, the Henry Hudson Parkway, and any other ironwork project that required courageous men with nerves of steel. In his statement to the Members of Canada's Parliament, National Chief Matthew Coon Come said, "I want to convey to you the sense of seriousness that First Nations peoples hold for the September 1, 2001 events. This is our homeland. Our Elders refer to the land as 'Mother Earth', and when anyone harms our Mother, be it through the destruction of the environment, or by the taking of human life that was put here, it hurts us all." The damage of 9/11 had to be dealt with immediately and the Great Spirit had to be invoked to aid in the healing process. The drums started beating, word spread out quickly and millions of prayers were forthcoming from Native peoples all across North America. Deeply touched, not only did they send their prayers, they started sending millions of dollars in donations. The Elders knew that that there was an open wound on the tip of Manhattan Island; a wound that had to be healed before everyone could move forward with their lives. They were honored when an invitation was offered to attend the 17th Annual Candlelight Vigil of Remembrance and Hope to be held at the West End Collegiate Church in NYC on April 21/02. This year's theme was 'Bringing Honor to Victims' and would pay special tribute to the families of the 9/11 disaster. The Mohawk peoples would lead everyone in the Healing Ceremony. Kwan Bennett, a Cherokee member of the Thunderbird Dancers, coordinated the New York City American Indian Community's participation in the Candlelight Vigil. She told Jim Kent, a reporter for the Native Times, that she knows many Mohawk ironworkers who've taken part in the recovery efforts at 'Ground Zero' and at times feels overwhelmed by the impact the tragedy has had on them and the rest of the city's American Indian population. "I know that the people of the Iroquois Nations who are taking care of this land that was once part of where their people lived are really touched to the core by what has happened," Bennett observed. There's been a lot of talk, particularly by the Elders, that we actually need to have a cleansing…a healing at the site. There's a lot of spiritual work that needs to be done." The opening procession was led by the NYC Dept. of Correction Bag Pipe Band, followed by the Pipeline Pipe and Drum Band, Mohawks from the Kahnawake and Akwesasne Reserves, and members of the First Nations from all across North America. They were wearing their traditional regalia and carrying fans, rattles, turtle shells, and smudge pots. The opening prayer by Arthur Powless, a Medicine Elder and former ironworker, was given in his Native language and was interpreted by Jerry McDonald of Akwasasne, a member of Local 440. Don Cardinal, a traditional healer from the Cree Nations, placed the Men's Eagle Staff and Peace Pipe on the podium and Kwan Bennett placed the Women's Eagle Staff. The Eagle Staff has represented Native peoples for thousands of years and has ceremonial and symbolic purpose. The Eagle Staff is carried to focus the intent of those it represents and signifies a strong spiritual message for those it honors. Every Eagle Staff is unique in design; made that way through the knowledge of its maker, according to the purpose and representation. The decision to make and use such a staff is always a serious undertaking. Survivors, family members and children read original poetry and messages of hope and recovery. The Akwesasne Women's Singers, the Heyna Second Sons, pianist Eric Alderfer, the Young People's Chorus of NYC, and Luis Mofsie, Director of the Thunderbird American Dancers, provided musical enrichment and entertainment. The Candlelight Vigil included spirituality and rituals. Guests received 'solace stones' as a symbol of the long journey of restoration, not only physically, but also mentally and spiritually. The Grey Elders from the Pine Ridge Reserve offered the ceremonial sage. White Pine needles were brought for the ceremony from Ohswegan, the Six Nations Reservation in Canada and were lit at the same time as the candles, as a symbol of 'Unity'. During the solemn candle lighting ceremony, attendees recited the names of family members and friends who were so suddenly taken away. While loved ones offered testimonials to the civilian and uniformed heroes of 9/11, meaningful and inspirational slides were shown. A book of 'Remembrance and Hope' recording the names of victims was ritually dedicated. Kwan Bennett delivered the introduction for the closing prayer, recited by Rayne Holley, Gabrielle Perez, Kia Benbow and Hunter McDonald, four children ranging in age from seven to twelve. Luis Mofsie played the Men's Drum for the closing song and healer Don Cardinal smoked the peace pipe to close the ceremonies. A marvelous feast was presented and greatly enjoyed by all. The Great Spirit had been invoked and the healing process of Mother Earth was well underway. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-17©bravehorseswarriors™111 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:41 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 109 John F Kennedy
Mood:  celebratory
Now Playing: Wolf Moon by TYPE O NEGATIVE
BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 109 John F Kennedy Navy Cross Winner Presidential Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket United States Navy Lieutenant John Fitzgerald Kennedy Warriors Citation Kennedy used his family influence to get into the war quickly rather than avoid it. The Allies were in a campaign of island hopping since capturing Guadalcanal in a bloody battle in 1942. Kennedy was assigned PT-109 upon arriving at Tulagi. By August, the Allies had captured Rendova and moved PT boat operations there. The US Marine Corps was driving the Japanese out of Munda airfield at New Georgia by August. All of the islands around Blackett Strait were still held by the Japanese. In an action considered too inconsequential by military historians to even have a formal name, PT-109 was sent out north on a night mission through Fergeson Passage to Blackett Strait. She was one of 15 boats sent to intercept the Tokyo Express. In what would be later considered to be a textbook example of one of the most poorly planned and uncoordinated PT boat attacks in the war, 15 boats loaded with 60 torpedoes counted only a few observed explosions (which did not necessarily mean hits). Flashes when torpedoes were launched would give away their positions, many torpedoes exploded prematurely or ran at the wrong depth, so no enemy ships were sunk. The boats were ordered to return when their torpedoes were expended, but the boats with radar shot their torpedoes first. When they returned, the remaining boats, such as PT-109, were left without radar. PT-109 patrolled the area in case the enemy ships returned. Around 0200, on a moonless night, Kennedy's boat was idling on one engine to avoid detection of her wake by Japanese aircraft, which had killed a PT officer in a previous night attack. With only ten seconds warning, they were not anticipating that they would be virtually parked square in the path of their target, which was returning from Vila, Kolombangara after offloading 912 soldiers and supplies, heading back towards Rabaul. The crew spotted a destroyer bearing down on them at speeds reported by some sources as high as 30 or 40 knots. Others believe it might have been as slow as 23 knots. With no time to get the engines up to speed to maneuver for a torpedo shot, they were run down by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri on August 2, 1943 in the Blackett Strait between Kolombangara and Arundel in the Solomon Islands near 8.063626° S 157.1515° E. PT-109 was cut in two. Seamen Andrew Jackson Kirksey and Harold W. Marney were lost. For such a catastrophic collision, explosion and fire, it was a low loss rate compared to other boats hit by shellfire. Conflicting statements have been made as to whether the destroyer captain had spotted and steered towards the boat; author Donovan who interviewed many of the destroyer crew believes the collision was not an accident, though other reports suggest Amagiri never even realized he'd run down the PT. Damage to the propeller slowed the destroyer's trip home. The PT-109 was gravely damaged, with watertight compartments keeping only the forward hull afloat in a sea of flames. Survival Kennedy and his warriors had to choose carefully where to go since all of the large islands had Japanese camps on them. The survivors chose the tiny deserted Plum Pudding Island, southwest of Kolombangara island. They placed their lantern, shoes and non-swimmers on one of the timbers used as a gun mount and began kicking together to propel it. It took 4 hours for the warriors to reach Plum Pudding island 3.5 miles (six kilometers) away, braving the possibility of encountering native sharks and crocodiles. Kennedy had swum at Harvard University so using a life jacket strap he clenched in his mouth, Kennedy towed McMahon, who was badly burned. The island was only a hundred yards in diameter with no food or water. The crew had to hide from passing Japanese barge traffic. Kennedy swam about 4 km more, to Naru and Olasana islands in search of help and food. He then led his men to Olasana Island, which had coconut trees and water, though the coconut milk made some of his men sick. The warriors who found Kennedy The explosion on August 2 was spotted by Australian coast watcher Sub Lt. Arthur Reginald Evans, who manned a secret observation post at the top of the volcano on Kolombangara Island; over ten thousand Japanese troops were garrisoned in the southeast. While the Navy and its squadron of PT boats held a memorial service for the warriors of PT-109 after reports were made of the large explosion. However, Evans dispatched Solomon Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana in a dugout canoe to look for possible survivors after decoding news that the explosion he had witnessed was probably from the lost PT-109. These canoes were similar to those used for thousands of years by people in the Pacific and by Native Americans. In retrospect, these were by far the oldest technology and smallest manned craft used by the Allies in WWII, but they could avoid detection by Japanese ships and aircraft and if spotted, would likely be taken for native fisherman. Kennedy and his warriors survived for six days on coconuts before they were found by the scouts. Gasa and Kumana disobeyed an order by stopping by Nauru to investigate a Japanese wreck, from which they salvaged fuel and food. They first fled by canoe from a shouting stranger who would turn out to be Kennedy. On the next island, they pointed their Tommy guns at the rest of the crew since the only light-skinned people they expected to find were Japanese, and they weren't familiar with either language or people. Gasa would later say, "All white people looked the same to me." Kennedy convinced them they were on the same side. The small canoe wasn't big enough for passengers. Though the Donovan book and movie depict Kennedy offering a coconut inscribed with a message, according to a National Geographic interview, it was Gasa who suggested it and Eroni who climbed a coconut tree to pick one. From: historical accounts & records
2007-11-15©bravehorseswarriors™109 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:37 AM EDT
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 107 Dwight H Johnson
Mood:  celebratory
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BRAVEHORSES WARRIORS 107 Dwight H Johnson Medal of Honor Winner Wounded in Action African American Warrior
Photo Sharing and Video Hosting at Photobucket US Army Specialist Fifth Class Dwight Hal Johnson Warriors Citation For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Specialist 5 Johnson, a tank driver with Company B, was a member of a reaction force moving to aid other elements of his platoon, which was in heavy contact with a battalion size North Vietnamese force. Specialist Johnson's tank, upon reaching the point of contact, threw a track and became immobilized. Realizing that he could do no more as a driver, he climbed out of the vehicle, armed only with a .45 caliber pistol. Despite intense hostile fire, Specialist Johnson killed several enemy soldiers before he had expended his ammunition. Returning to his tank through a heavy volume of antitank rocket, small arms and automatic weapons fire, he obtained a sub-machine gun with which to continue his fight against the advancing enemy. Armed with this weapon, Specialist Johnson again braved deadly enemy fire to return to the center of the ambush site where he courageously eliminated more of the determined foe. Engaged in extremely close combat when the last of his ammunition was expended, he killed an enemy soldier with the stock end of his submachine gun. Now weaponless, Specialist Johnson ignored the enemy fire around him, climbed into his platoon sergeant's tank, extricated a wounded crewmember and carried him to an armored personnel carrier. He then returned to the same tank and assisted in firing the main gun until it jammed. In a magnificent display of courage, Specialist Johnson exited the tank and again armed only with a .45 caliber pistol, he engaged several North Vietnamese troops in close proximity to the vehicle. Fighting his way through devastating fire and remounting his own immobilized tank, he remained fully exposed to the enemy as he bravely and skillfully engaged them with the tank's externally-mounted .50 caliber machine gun; where he remained until the situation was brought under control. Specialist Johnson's profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army. From: military records
2007-11-13©bravehorseswarriors™107 Education Services at Adjunct Professor LLC Warriors, Places, & Events AP

Posted by adjunctprofessor at 2:21 AM EDT
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